Thesis or Dissertation Tungusic from the Perspective of Areal Linguistics : Focusing on the Bikin Dialect of Udihe

白, 尚燁

The present dissertation examines the Tungusic languages from the perspective of areal linguistics, centering on the southern Bikin dialect of Udihe. This study mainly consists of four syntactic issues: (i) third person marking on finite indicative forms, (ii) the converbal ending *-mi, (iii) conditional forms, and (iv) correlatives. First, taking the four typological parameters, namely obligatorily distinct, optionally distinct, non-distinct, and non-person marking types in terms of number distinction, the analysis demonstrates distinct patterns of third person marking on finite indicative forms in Tungusic in accordance with areal distribution, strikingly similar to those of neighboring languages. Second, the functional differences of the converbal ending *-mi among the Tungusic languages are analyzed with the employment of the cross-linguistic morpho-syntactic and semantic typological standards of converbs from an areal perspective in relationship with the adjacent languages. Third, based on switchreference and semantic classification for conditionals, different syntactic characteristics of conditional forms in Tungusic according to geographical distribution are clarified from the viewpoint of areal linguistics. Lastly, correlatives, the WH pronoun in the subordinate clause corresponding with the WH or DEM pronoun in the main clause, are revealed to show gradual syntactic variations among the Tungusic languages in similarity with those of Russian and Chinese correlatives depending on geographical position, in terms of correlative types and verb forms in the correlative clause. In conclusion, the syntactic differences among the Tungusic languages strongly correlate with areal distribution, classified into three groups; (i) North Tungusic, (ii) East Tungusic, and (iii) South Tungusic. First of all, North Tungusic, spoken in the northern Siberian region, shares similar syntactic characteristics with Kolima Yukaghir, Sakha, Russian, and Mongolic. Second, East Tungusic in the Russian Far East retains the grammatical features of Russian, Mongolic, and Chinese at low or intermediate levels. Third, South Tungusic languages inside the Chinese border are heavily influenced by Mongolic and Chinese. Consequently, the areal-based distinctions among three Tungusic groups at the syntactic level are attributed to the influences from different neighboring languages and different degrees of influence from the same adjacent languages.
Hokkaido University(北海道大学). 博士(文学)

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