112 , 2016-03-25 , 北海道大学大学院国際広報メディア・観光学院 = Graduate School of International Media, Communication, and Tourism Studies, Hokkaido University
Though Gutenberg’s invention of printing took place in the middle of the 15th century and the foundation and completion of the official post system of the Holy Roman Empire barely 150 years later, it was still necessary for a social environment that tolerated the printed newspaper as an epoch-making information channel. As far back as Ancient Greece and Rome rulers tried to supervise and control communication activities in each society. But the explosive spread of information through printing was so impressive, that at first the clergy, and later also emperors and monarchs, introduced various legal means like censorship and privilegium impressorium (monopolistic license for an individual title). According to Eisenhardt (1970) and other researchers, a rigid and complete system of supervision did not exist at the time of the foundation of newspapers in the German speaking area. However, contrary evidence exists. Even the first newspaper founder and editor Johann Carolus in Strasbourg clearly ran into difficulty 1609 because of an article, although he could continue to print his newspaper in the following weeks. “Aviso” in Wolfenbüttel, the second newspaper in the Empire, was free from problems of this sort because the editors were partly officials at court without the need to be supervised.