||コリャーク語の副詞節 : 名詞化タイプと非名詞化タイプ
Nominalizing Type and Non-nominalizing Type in Koryak Adverbial Clauses
23 , 2016-01-20 , 北海道大学文学研究科
The purpose of the present paper is to examine two types of verb marking in adverbial clauses, that is, the nominalizing type and the non-nominalizing type, in the Chukchi-Kamchatkan language, Koryak.
Besides the exclusive use of so-called converb forms, Siberian languages are well known for making rich use of case morphology to mark a range of functional types of subordinate clauses. With regard to case-marked subordination, there are two basic formal subtypes. In one type, the nominalizing type, the case affix attaches to a nominalized form of the verb. Meanwhile, in the other—the non-nominalizing type—the case affix attaches to either a bare verb stem, a semi-inflected form of the verb, or a finite verb form. Koryak shows both the nominalizing type and the non-nominalizing type of verb marking. In the latter type, the case affix attaches to a bare verb stem. Through examination, the present paper clarifies the following points: 1) In the nominalizing type, either the allative, dative, or locative case attaches to the nominalized stem and marks either temporal clause or purposive clause. Meanwhile, in the non-nominalizing type, either the locative, instrumental, dative, comitative, or associative case attaches to a bare verb stem and marks a range of functional types such as temporal, causal, conditional, concessive, and manner. 2) Among the neighboring languages, only Yupik and Naukan of the Eskimo-Aleut language family share the non-nominalizing type with Koryak. As the non-nominalizing type is not observed in other languages of that family distributed in North America, it is possible that Yupik and Naukan adopted the non-nominalizing type from the Chukchi-Kamchatkan.
3) The non-nominalizing type is observed not only in adverbial clauses but also in an infinitive (in the locative case) and an imperative form (in the comitative case), which shows that this type penetrates into the Koryak grammar.