Journal Article Application of ionomics to plant and soil in fields under long-term fertilizer trials

Watanabe, Toshihiro  ,  Urayama, Masaru  ,  Shinano, Takuro  ,  Okada, Ryosuke  ,  Osaki, Mitsuru

4p.781 , 2015-12-18 , Springer
Ionomics is the study of elemental accumulation in living organisms using high-throughput elemental profiling. In the present study, we examined the ionomic responses to nutrient deficiency in maize grown in the field in long-term fertilizer trials. Furthermore, the available elements in the field soils were analyzed to investigate their changes under long-term fertilizer treatment and the ionomic relationships between plant and soil. Maize was cultivated in a field with the following five long-term fertilizer treatments: complete fertilization, fertilization without nitrogen, without phosphorus, without potassium, and no fertilization. Concentrations of 22 elements in leaves at an early flowering stage and in soils after harvest were determined. The fertilizer treatments changed the availabilities of many elements in soils. For example, available cesium was decreased by 39 % and increased by 126 % by fertilizations without nitrogen and potassium, respectively. Effects of treatments on the ionome in leaves were evaluated using the translocation ratio (the concentration in leaves relative to the available concentration in soils) for each element. Nitrogen deficiency specifically increased the uptake ability of molybdenum, which might induce the enhancement of nitrogen assimilation and/or endophytic nitrogen fixation in plant. Potassium deficiency drastically enhanced the uptake ability of various cationic elements. These elements might act as alternatives to K in osmoregulation and counterion of organic/inorganic anions. Two major groups of elements were detected by multivariate analyses of plant ionome. Elements in the same group may be linked more or less in uptake and/or translocation systems. No significant correlation between plant and soil was found in concentrations of many elements, even though various soil extraction methods were applied, implying that the interactions between the target and other elements in soil must be considered when analyzing mineral dynamics between plant and soil.

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