Journal Article Synergistic Costimulatory Effect of Chlamydia pneumoniae with Carbon Nanoparticles on NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Interleukin-1 beta Secretion in Macrophages

Matsuo, Junji  ,  Nakamura, Shinji  ,  Takeda, Seiji  ,  Ishida, Kasumi  ,  Yamazaki, Tomohiro  ,  Yoshida, Mitsutaka  ,  Chiba, Hitoshi  ,  Hui, Shu-Ping  ,  Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

83 ( 7 )  , pp.2917 - 2925 , 2015-07 , American Society for Microbiology
The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is not only a causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia but is also associated with a more serious chronic disease, asthma, which might be exacerbated by air pollution containing carbon nanoparticles. Although a detailed mechanism of exacerbation remains unknown, the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin- 1 beta (IL-1 beta) is a critical player in the pathogenesis of asthma. C. pneumoniae induces IL-1 beta in macrophages via NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and Toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) stimulation. Carbon nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), can also evoke the NLRP3 inflammasome to trigger IL-1 beta secretion from lipopolysaccharide-primed macrophages. This study assessed whether costimulation of C. pneumoniae with CNTs synergistically enhanced IL-1 beta secretion from macrophages, and determined the molecular mechanism involved. Enhanced IL-1 beta secretion from C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages by CNTs was dose and time dependent. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that C. pneumoniae and CNTs were engulfed concurrently by macrophages. Inhibitors of actin polymerization or caspase-1, a component of the inflammasome, significantly blocked IL-1 beta secretion. Gene silencing using small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the NLRP3 gene also abolished IL-1 beta secretion. Other inhibitors (K+ efflux inhibitor, cathepsin B inhibitor, and reactive oxygen species-generating inhibitor) also blocked IL-1 beta secretion. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that CNTs synergistically enhanced IL-1 beta secretion from C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages via the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1 activation, providing novel insight into our understanding of how C. pneumoniae infection can exacerbate asthma.

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