Journal Article Essential role of the cytochrome P450 CYP4F22 in the production of acylceramide, the key lipid for skin permeability barrier formation

Ohno, Yusuke  ,  Nakamichi, Shota  ,  Ohkuni, Aya  ,  Kamiyama, Nozomi  ,  Naoe, Ayano  ,  Tsujimura, Hisashi  ,  Yokose, Urara  ,  Sugiura, Kazumitsu  ,  Ishikawa, Junko  ,  Akiyama, Masashi  ,  Kihara, Akio

112 ( 25 )  , pp.7707 - 7712 , 2015-06-23 , National Academy of Sciences
A skin permeability barrier is essential for terrestrial animals, and its impairment causes several cutaneous disorders such as ichthyosis and atopic dermatitis. Although acylceramide is an important lipid for the skin permeability barrier, details of its production have yet to be determined, leaving the molecular mechanism of skin permeability barrier formation unclear. Here we identified the cytochrome P450 gene CYP4F22 as the long-sought fatty acid ω- hydroxylase gene required for acylceramide production. CYP4F22 has been identified as one of the autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis-causative genes. Ichthyosis mutant proteins exhibited reduced enzyme activity, indicating correlation between activity and pathology. Furthermore, lipid analysis of an ichthyosis patient showed a drastic decrease in acylceramide production. We determined that CYP4F22 was a type I membrane protein that locates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), suggesting that the ω-hydroxylation occurs on the cytoplasmic side of the ER. The preferred substrate of the CYP4F22 was ?C28 fatty acids. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that CYP4F22 is an ultra long-chain fatty acid ω-hydroxylase responsible for acylceramide production and provides important new insights into the molecular mechanisms of skin permeability barrier formation. Furthermore, based on the results obtained here, we proposed a detailed reaction series for acylceramide production.

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