119 , 2015-11 , The Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University
This research presents evaluation of morphology in systematics of the tribe Podismini through the following studies. Morphology of the Podismini is studied and their transformation series are discussed by examination of the body parts including the male and female genitalia. Detailed descriptions of the female internal genitalia of the grasshoppers are given firstly. The terminology of the female internal genitalia is revised. Phylogenetic relationships among 13 podismini genera in the Far East are inferred on the basis of morphology using cladistic methodology. The topology of the consensus tree is somewhat similar to that of the mtDNA and/or rDNA tree proposed previously. Based on the result, subtribes are revised: a new subtribe Tonkinacridina is proposed for the genera Tonkinacris, Sinopodisma, Fruhstorferiola and Parapodisma, excluding them from the subtribe Miramellina. The result suggests paraphyly of the genus Parapodisma, endemic to Japan and adjacent regions. Chromosome number possibly changed at least twice in Podismini. Phylogenetic relationships among Parapodisma species are inferred on the basis of morphology using cladistic methodology. The result suggests that speciation in this genus occurred almost allopatrically in 3 lineages. All the 22 species of 9 genera of Japanese Podismini are described based on the above discussion.