||A global-scale map of isoprene and volatile organic iodine in surface seawater of the Arctic, Northwest Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans
Ooki, Atsushi ,
Nomura, Daiki ,
Nishino, Shigeto ,
Kikuchi, TakashiYokouchi, Yoko
Journal of geophysical research oceans
4128 , 2015-06 , American Geophysical Union
Isoprene (C5H8) and three volatile organic iodine compounds (VOIs: CH3I, C2H5I, and CH2ClI) in surface seawater were measured in the western Arctic, Northwest Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans during the period 2008-2012. These compounds are believed to play an important role in the marine atmospheric chemistry after their emission. The measurements were performed with high time-resolution (1-6 h intervals) using an online equilibrator gas chromatography mass spectrometer. C5H8 was most abundant in high-productivity transitional waters and eutrophic tropical waters. The chlorophyll-a normalized production rates of C5H8 were high in the warm subtropical and tropical waters, suggesting the existence of a high emitter of C5H8 in the biological community of the warm waters. High concentrations of the three VOIs in highly productive transitional water were attributed to biological productions. For CH3I, the highest concentrations were widely distributed in the basin area of the oligotrophic subtropical NW Pacific, probably due to photochemical production and/or high emission rates from phytoplankton. In contrast, the lowest concentrations of C2H5I in subtropical waters were attributed to photochemical removal. Enhancement of CH2ClI concentrations in the shelf-slope areas of the Chukchi Sea and the transitional waters of the NW Pacific in winter suggested that vertical mixing with subsurface waters by regional upwelling or winter cooling acts to increase the CH2ClI concentrations in surface layer. Sea-air flux calculations revealed that the fluxes of CH2ClI were the highest among the three VOIs in shelf-slope areas; the CH3I flux was highest in basin areas.