Differences of Conditionals in the Tungusic Languages
152 , 2015-03-20 , 北海道大学大学院文学研究科
This study aims not only to clarify that the Tungusic languagesthe display different patterns of conditional constructions but also to raise a possibility that such distinctions of conditionals among Tungusic are based on geographical distribution of Tungusic and/or loss of DS conditional converb *-rAk-. This paper appliapplies two typological parameters of conditionalses to each Tungusic language as follows: switch-reference(same-subject, different-subject, and variable subject) and semantic types (real and unreal conditionals). In conclusion, conditionals in North Tungusic(Evenki, Even, and Negidal), both real and unreal, are formed with corresponding forms of two conditional converbal suffixes *-mi (SS) and *-rAk-(DS), which present a strict distinction of switch-reference. On the other hand, switch-reference does not function at all in the conditionals of South Tungusic (Solon, Hezhen, and Manchu), spoken in China, which are formed with conditional converbal suffixes (<*-rAk-). In addition, converb in -mi in this Chinese Tungusic does not serve as a conditional marker. East Tungusic(Nanay, Olcha, Uilta, Orochi, and Udihe) are divided into two groups on the basis of retention of DS conditional converbal suffix *-rAk-: 1) Nanay, Olcha, and Udihe, which lost the corresponding form of *-rAk-, have both switch-reference and non switch-reference oriented conditional forms in real conditional, whereas unreal conditionals, formed with special conditional particles, are not influenced by switch-reference, 2) Orochi and Uilta, shich retain the corresponding suffix of *-rAk-, form conditionals in accordance with switch-reference. Therefore, the differences of conditionals among Tungusic are presumed to result from areal distribution of Tungusic and/or loss of DS conditional converbal suffix *-rAk-.