Departmental Bulletin Paper イテリメン語の否定の構造
Negative Structures in Itelmen

小野, 智香子

5pp.39 - 53 , 2015-03-20 , 北海道大学大学院文学研究科
Itelmen negative structures are classified as follows: (A) suffix-type negation and (B) finite-type negation. (A) suffix-type negation: negative particle (qaʔm, zaq, wijaq) + LV(lexical verb)-negative suffix (+ AUXiliary verb) (B) finite-type negation: negative particle (χeʔnc) + finite verb (optative or subjunctive mood) Negation in suffix-type (A) is double-marked with a negative particle and the negative suffix, while negation in finite-type (B) is marked only by the negative particle. Each negative particle has a different negative function and co-occurs with a different finite form: qaʔm + LV-kaq/-(a)q (+ AUX in indicative past and present tense) - negation in the non-future zaq + LV-kaq/-(a)q (+ AUX in second person optative) - negative imperative wijaq + LV-kaq/-(a)q (or other suffixes) (+ AUX in subjunctive or optative) - non-factive or prohibitive χeʔnc + LV in optative or subjunctive finite form - negation in the future or non-factive The distinction between the indicative and optative that exists in the affirmative is lost in the future negative. In Itelmen, negation in the non-future is marked as realis (indicative past/present tense), while negation in the future and non-factive is marked as irrealis (optative or subjunctive). In conclusion, negation in Itelmen has a strong connection with the mood category, and especially with the reality status (realis/irrealis distinction).

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