Negative Structures in Itelmen
53 , 2015-03-20 , 北海道大学大学院文学研究科
Itelmen negative structures are classified as follows: (A) suffix-type negation and (B) finite-type negation.
(A) suffix-type negation:
negative particle (qaʔm, zaq, wijaq) + LV(lexical verb)-negative suffix (+ AUXiliary verb)
(B) finite-type negation:
negative particle (χeʔnc) + finite verb (optative or subjunctive mood)
Negation in suffix-type (A) is double-marked with a negative particle and the negative suffix, while negation in finite-type (B) is marked only by the negative particle. Each negative particle has a different negative function and co-occurs with a different finite form:
qaʔm + LV-kaq/-(a)q (+ AUX in indicative past and present tense) － negation in the non-future
zaq + LV-kaq/-(a)q (+ AUX in second person optative) － negative imperative
wijaq + LV-kaq/-(a)q (or other suffixes) (+ AUX in subjunctive or optative) － non-factive or prohibitive
χeʔnc + LV in optative or subjunctive finite form － negation in the future or non-factive
The distinction between the indicative and optative that exists in the affirmative is lost in the future negative. In Itelmen, negation in the non-future is marked as realis (indicative past/present tense), while negation in the future and non-factive is marked as irrealis (optative or subjunctive). In conclusion, negation in Itelmen has a strong connection with the mood category, and especially with the reality status (realis/irrealis distinction).