Asymmetric Negation in Alutor
37 , 2015-03-20 , 北海道大学大学院文学研究科
This paper gives an overview of negative constructions in Alutor (a Chukchi-Kamchatkan language). Alutor has a rich set of morphemes used in verbal negation: three negative particles (allə, kətvəl, and qətəmmə) and three negative circumfixes(a-...-ka, nuŋ-...-(t)a, and təmŋi-...-(t)a). Negative constructions are broadly divided into two types:
(i) Circumfix-type: negative particle + a verb stem with negative circumfix
(ii) Finite-type: negative particle + finite verb in the optative or subjunctive mood
The first type is mainly used for negation of realis (non-future), and the second type for negation of irrealis (future). In addition to these, there is a third option of using both types of negative construction. Negative commands (or prohibition) are formed in this way. The circumfix-type negation is constructionally asymmetric: a verb stem is marked with a negative circumfix, and inflectional affixes obligatorily attached to a verb stem in the affirmative are attached to the auxiliary verb stem. The finite-type negation is constructionally symmetric, but paradigmatically asymmetric: a verb stem takes inflectional affixes in the optative or subjunctive mood without any semantic difference, whereas those moods represent different semantic functions in the affirmative.