||Inadequate water treatment quality as assessed by protozoa removal in Sarawak, Malaysia
Lo, Nguk Ting ,
Mohammad Abul Bashar Sarker ,
Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian ,
Md. Harun-Or-RashidSakamoto, Junichi
Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
174 , 2018-05 , Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, School of Medicine
Providing safe drinking-water to human civilization is indispensable; it is one of the most cost-effective means of reducing the disease burden of diarrhea. Unfortunately, water supply quality monitoring from public water treatment plants (WTPs) is often neglected or taken for granted. To determine the produced water quality, WTPs in Sarawak, Malaysia were assessed for their protozoa removal ability. A self- administered questionnaire based on the regulations in the Drinking-water Standards for New Zealand (DWSNZ) was developed. Optional 10-liter raw water samples were collected from willing WTPs for the detection of protozoan cysts. Routine physical and microbial testing of WTP parameters were also requested for raw water quality overview. Two of the nine assessed WTPs achieved three log credits in the treatment component, one of which belonged to Peninsular Malaysia. No log credits were obtained in the other tested components for any samples. Most of the WTPs employed “Coagulation, Sedimentation, and Filtration” using rapid gravity filters without enhancement ( P < 0.05). Giardia cysts were detected in raw water sources used for treatment, and the geographical location was identified as an influencing factor for raw water quality. There is an urgent requirement for active collaboration and holistic approaches to review existing water management policies and interventions. WTPs in Sarawak did not achieve the log credits required to safeguard the microbial quality of the water supplied; however, only Giardia cysts were detected in 10-liter raw water samples despite routine microbial parameter monitoring showing disturbing contamination levels.