Ecological modernization Theory (EMT) is the thought that perceives the relationship between environment and economy as win-win. Recently, many policies influenced by EMT have been implemented not only in Western countries, but also in Asian and other countries. The problems discussed in this article are as below: first, EMT has been interpreted and defined in various ways by researchers. Therefore, it has remained abstract and discursive. Especially, globalization and diffusion of the theory has made circumstance more complicated. Secondly, EMT has been accepted by newly industrialized or developing counties as political idea that integrates economy and environment. However, many scholars have suspected whether these policies can put EM into practice because of difference of economic situations, political institutions, or democratic behaviors. Although these policies might be different from original ones, they could be interpreted as variation of EM in global scale. From this perspective, this article summarizes chronicle of discourse on EMT, from the birth of the idea to globalization. Then, it will be shown that various patterns of EM are ways to sustainable development in global scale by multi-level governance theory. Lastly, remained problems such as lack of civil society and absent of post-European model are suggested.