戦前における就学奨励の制度化過程に関する研究 : 救貧法制との関係に着目して戦前における就学奨励の制度化過程に関する研究 : 救貧法制との関係に着目して The Systemic Processes of the School Attendee Allowance Schemes in the Pre-World War II Era and Its Relationship to Public Relief Legislation
The purpose of this paper is to describe the institutional process of the School Attendee Allowance System in the era prior to World War II and to clarify its relationship to later developments in public relief legislation. The findings of this study summarize three points: 1) In order to improve the school attendance rate for the developing national compulsory education system, local governments needed to secure the school attendance of deprived children, who were exempted from school attendance under Article 33 of the 3rd Elementary School Ordinance. Local governments responded by inaugurating school attendee allowance schemes even before the inception of a national policy. However, because local government agencies did not deal with poverty cases in a positive light, nor address them as the main cause for nonattendance, school attendee allowance schemes were limited to its educational expenses. 2) Since A growing consensus emphasized the protection of deprived children as one strategy against poverty, the Ministry of Home Affairs drafted the Child Public Assistance Bill, which included benefits for school supplies for deprived children. Later authority for the management of legislations protecting school attendance was transferred to the Ministry of Education. However the Minstry did not enact any legislation for school attendance protection that would force the local governments to bear financial burden. Consequently, the Ministry of Home Affairs resumed drafting the Child Public Assistance Bill. Since the Relief Act, enacted in 1929, was established in such a way as to come under the umbrella of this Bill, compulsory education expenses became included as part of public daily assistance. However, due to the budgetary limitation truly needy children were excluded from beneficiaries of the Relief Act. and the Regulation for Encouraging School-Aged Children Attendance, enacted in 1928. 3) In the Taisho era, securing the school attendance of deprived children became considered an important issue not only by the Government but also by the social work activists. It was evolved from the development of the welfare ideas in the prewar period, combined with the growth of capitalism and the expansion of imperialistic expansion policies. Another view developed that linked the nonattendance of needy children to insubstantial household income, which resulted in funds granted to the needy for both schooling expense and living expenses. This discussion may have contributed to the later provision of living expenses being included among the benefits of the Regulation for Encouraging Children of School Age to Attend School. Even though the school attendee allowance schemes in the pre-war era were implemented as charity relief in the absence of clear human right philosophy, it functioned effectively to promote welfare of deprived children at the node of education policy and social welfare policy.