||Dependence of cavitation, chemical effect, and mechanical effect thresholds on ultrasonic frequency
Tam, Thanh Nguyena ,
Yoshiyuki, Asakura ,
Shinobu, KodaKeiji, Yasuda
306 , 2017-11 , Elsevier
Cavitation, chemical effect, and mechanical effect thresholds were investigated in wide frequency ranges from 22 to 4880 kHz. Each threshold was measured in terms of sound pressure at fundamental frequency. Broadband noise emitted from acoustic cavitation bubbles was detected by a hydrophone to determine the cavitation threshold. Potassium iodide oxidation caused by acoustic cavitation was used to quantify the chemical effect threshold. The ultrasonic erosion of aluminum foil was conducted to estimate the mechanical effect threshold. The cavitation, chemical effect, and mechanical effect thresholds increased with increasing frequency. The chemical effect threshold was close to the cavitation threshold for all frequencies. At low frequency below 98 kHz, the mechanical effect threshold was nearly equal to the cavitation threshold. However, the mechanical effect threshold was greatly higher than the cavitation threshold at high frequency. In addition, the thresholds of the second harmonic and the first ultraharmonic signals were measured to detect bubble occurrence. The threshold of the second harmonic approximated to the cavitation threshold below 1000 kHz. On the other hand, the threshold of the first ultraharmonic was higher than the cavitation threshold below 98 kHz and near to the cavitation threshold at high frequency.