||Power of one nonclean qubit
Morimae, Tomoyuki ,
Fujii, KeisukeNishimura, Harumichi
042336 , 2017-04-25 , American Physical Society
The one-clean qubit model (or the DQC1 model) is a restricted model of quantum computing where only a single qubit of the initial state is pure and others are maximally mixed. Although the model is not universal, it can efficiently solve several problems whose classical efficient solutions are not known. Furthermore, it was recently shown that if the one-clean qubit model is classically efficiently simulated, the polynomial hierarchy collapses to the second level. A disadvantage of the one-clean qubit model is, however, that the clean qubit is too clean: for example, in realistic NMR experiments, polarizations are not high enough to have the perfectly pure qubit. In this paper, we consider a more realistic one-clean qubit model, where the clean qubit is not clean, but depolarized. We first show that, for any polarization, a multiplicative-error calculation of the output probability distribution of the model is possible in a classical polynomial time if we take an appropriately large multiplicative error. The result is in strong contrast with that of the ideal one-clean qubit model where the classical efficient multiplicative-error calculation (or even the sampling) with the same amount of error causes the collapse of the polynomial hierarchy. We next show that, for any polarization lower-bounded by an inverse polynomial, a classical efficient sampling (in terms of a sufficiently small multiplicative error or an exponentially small additive error) of the output probability distribution of the model is impossible unless BQP (bounded error quantum polynomial time) is contained in the second level of the polynomial hierarchy, which suggests the hardness of the classical efficient simulation of the one nonclean qubit model.