||「国民」への動員 ： 総力戦と「新興娯楽」による社会主体の更新
Mobilizing into ‘the National’ : The Social Subject Updated Through ‘Newly Emerging Entertainment’ under the Total War in Japan
藤木, 秀朗FUJIKI, Hideaki
168 , 2017-03-31 , 名古屋大学文学部
This article reconsiders the relations between ʻthe nationalʼ (or ʻkokuminʼ) and culture, especially what was called ʻnewly emerging forms of entertainmentʼ (shinkō goraku) such as film, radio and record during the 1920s and 1930s. In so doing, it examines the relevance of the so-called theory of total war. The theory of total war has made chiefly two points. One is that the total war, which evolved from World War I through World War II, replaced the class-based society with the nationbased society so that it levelled the differences among people in terms of class, race and gender. The other point is that the total war integrated the nation-state through prompting people to voluntarily participate in the nation-building. While I agree this theory to some extent, I highlight two significant updates from the 1920s towards the late 1930s. First, in the late 1930s, ʻthe nationalʼ was to be redefined as the self-disciplinary social subject who voluntarily subjected themselves to the state. It was conceptualized by updating ʻthe peopleʼ (or ʻminshūʼ), the term which had been much more dominant to designate the social subject in the 1920s than ʻthe nationalʼ. Secondly, the target that should be guided to ʻthe nationalʼ was ʻthe massesʼ, which were recognized as the desiring subjects associated with the growing capitalism and consumer culture. Thus, intellectual discourses under the total war advocated mobilizing ʻthe massesʼ into ʻthe nationalʼ -not simply mobilizing the national-through the new forms of entertainments. But at the same time, I also argue, it concealed contradictions in the discursive recognition of the social subject, peopleʼs atomization and gender inequality.