||懐疑家フィロはなぜ宇宙的知性を認めたのか ： ヒューム哲学とキリスト教の関係について
Why should Philo the Skeptic Admit of the Existence of Cosmic Intelligence? : On the Relationship between Hume's Philosophy and Christianity
田村, 均TAMURA, Hitoshi
60 , 2017-03-31 , 名古屋大学文学部
In this paper I will propose a new interpretation of Philoʼs hesitant conversion in Humeʼs Dialogues concerning Natural Religion. Near the end of Dialogues Philo, a skeptic taking on something of Humeʼs character, seems to change his opinion from con to pro about the Design Argument. How to interpret his change of attitude has long been a problem for Hume scholars. Does Philo, or Hume himself, really accept a certain kind of Christianity, or is it only a guise? I was grown up and now live in a non-Christendom type of society, so I feel I can see the problem from the external point of view to the Christianity. Hume succeeds in constructing a non-Christian system of moral philosophy. He explains the origins of morality and political order with no recourse to divine natural law. This is one of his great achievements. His system, however, has dropped an element of Christianity that has played an important role in the history of the Christendom. What disappears from Humeʼs system is the positive attitude to the personal revolt against the power and authority. The Christian world view contains the possibility of the political revolution in the name of God. We can trace the line of affirmative thoughts for the resistance against an ungodly authority from St. Augustine through Thomas Aquinas to John Locke. It is true that Hume has never admitted of enthusiasm as a true religion but he does acknowledge the value of “the Spirit of liberty” that comes out in the history of England through a sectarian movement such as puritanism. Provided that he would like to highly evaluate the spirit of liberty, he has to admit, however reluctantly, that an individual, who may be a beginning point of revolution, could at least stand in a certain relationship with the cosmic intelligent order that might well justify revolution. Therefore Philo says that the cause or causes of order in the universe probably bear some remote analogy to human intelligence. Philoʼs conversion is thus necessitated by the possibility of revolution that can be seen as essential to the history of European Christendom.