Thomas Warren : a printer of Leviathan（head edition）
髙野, 彰TAKANO, Akira
17 , 2016-03-31 , 名古屋大学附属図書館研究開発室
Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan (head edition) was published in 1651 by Andrew Crooke. It has two other editions, Bear edition and Ornament edition. Head ornament is used on 36 books and pamphlets between 1636-62 which show sometimes four printers' names. First printer is John Norton, second Alice Norton, third Thomas Warren and fourth Alice Warren. Alice is John’s wife. After his death she begins to print. Alice remarried Thomas Warren in 1642 and he begins to print in 1643. Warren is dead in 1661, but Alice begins to print from 1660. These four printers are members of John’s family, and they continued to use the head ornament for a long time. Their head ornaments are distinguished by a slender face, a pointed leaf at the upper center and a bundle of clothes. These characterics are shown on every head ornaments on Table 1. After 1645, a damage at the upper right corner is added to these. But head ornament was used by two other families. First is Bonham Norton and his child Roger Norton. Second is Christopher Barker and his eldest son Robert Barker. Their head ornaments are distinguished by a round face, a flower bud at the upper center and a bundle of clothes with fringes. Leviathan’s head ornament is distinguished by a slender face and a damage at the upper right corner. It is the same head ornament as John Norton family’s and a printer of the family in 1645-66 is Thomas Warren. So Leviathan’s head ornament was printed by Thomas Warren. If Roger Norton prints it, he should not use John’s ornament but Roger’s ornament, that is, the ornament with a round face, a brocken flower bud without a damage at the upper right corner. Leviathan has another big ornament (crowned head ornament). But any examples by John Norton’s family can not be found. In 1649 Roger Norton printed The great exempler of sanctity and holy lives with a crowned head ornament (Wing T342) (sig. a1r). Its ornament has a small damage at the left flanked stalk upon a small head. Since then, its damage is shown on Wing A3147 (sig.*1r) (1650), T405 (sig.A1r) (1651) and J91 (sig. a2r) (1653) and others. But Leviathan’s crowned head ornament has not a damage at the same place. So Roger is not a printer of the crowned head ornament of Leviathan (head edition). Second half of Leviathan (head edition) begins with mermaid initial I. It has a damage near the upper center of the border. Richard Cotes used a same damaged mermaid initial I (Wing L2071). So he is the printer of the mermaid initial I of Leviathan (head edition). On table3, Letter ‘m’ is recurred between sig. 2C-2Z, and letters ‘c’ and ‘d’ are recurred between sig. E-2B. But letter ‘m’ is not used before sig. 2B and letter ‘c’ and ‘d’ are not used after sig. 2C. Then, Leviathan (head edition) is divided into two and composed by two compositors. Adding the fact on the printers of head ornament and mermaid initial I to these, it comes to a conclusion that Leviathan (head edition) is divided into two and first part (sig.A-2B4) is printed by Thomas Warren and second part (sig. 2C-3D4) by Richard Cotes. Signature A consists of outer and inner sheets. But some inner sheet is turned inside out by mistake and folded. So some sig. A are misbound as A1, A3, A2, A4. Signature A4’s text of Leviathan (head edition) begins with ‘THE INTRODUCTION’. ‘THE’ is printed by two kind of types. Roman capital is the first print with signature ‘B’ and swash italic capital is revised print without signature ‘B’.