||ラタナコーシン朝前期における大臣の変遷 : 官歴を主な手がかりとして
On the Transition of Political Ministers in the Early Rattanakosin Period (1782‒1873), with Special Reference to Their Official Careers
川口, 洋史KAWAGUCHI, Hiroshi
50 , 2016-03-31 , 名古屋大学文学部
Wyatt (1994 ) examines how the Bunnag family rose to power by marrying into royal and other noble families as a feature of political history in early Rattanakosin Siam (1782‒1873). However, this family politics theory does not account for ministers whose family background is uncertain. Therefore, this paper aims to reconsider political history in the early Rattanakosin period by analyzing not only family information but also the official careers of the ministers. The first half of this paper provides information regarding the official careers of 58 ministers from six different ministries from 1782 to 1892, based on historical sources. During the reign of King Rama I (1782‒1809), most ministers were retainers who rose to prominence based on their military merits when the dynasty was established. Bunnag was one of these retainers; however, it is necessary to modify the previous characterization of his career as a swift rise to power. According to Wyatt, the peak of Bunnagʼs success was his appointment as the minister of the Kalāhōm, known as the Caophrayā Akkhamahāsēnā, in 1787. In fact, this did not occur until 1805 or 1806. Despite an affinity with Rama I, it was difficult for Bunnag to overtake the other officers, who had more successfully established themselves at the beginning of the dynasty, in the race to be promoted. Regarding official careers, four officials who secured posts in the Phrakhlang ministry were appointed as ministers under the reign of Rama I. The power of this ministry was derived from its involvement with royal overseas trade, which was of great financial importance. King Rama II (reigned 1809‒1824) provided ministerial posts to members of the Bāngchāng and Bunnag families, his relatives on his motherʼs side, and to certain servants who had served him faithfully before his accession. Dit, son of Bunnag, who was a cousin and close confidant of Rama II, was appointed the minister of the Phrakhlang under the title Caophrayā Phrakhlang. From 1830, Dit also concurrently served as the minister of the Kalāhōm. As Wyatt writes, although other families produced ministers, the Bunnag family was the most successful at doing so. However, the Bunnag family was unable to enter the Mahātthai ministry, whose officials, from the reign of Rama III (1824‒1851) to the early years of the reign of Rama V (1868‒1910), were largely the ministers of the six different ministries. In this period, seven officials had been appointed regular posts in the Mahātthai before they were promoted as ministers, while each of the Kalāhōm and Phrakhlang ministries produced only three such officials. This situation cannot be explained by Wyattʼs family politics theory. During the reign of Rama III, the Mahātthai ministry extended its jurisdiction and imposed more taxes. While the overseas trade begun to decrease in importance, the significance of domestic revenue gradually increased, leading to an increase in the number of documents. Consequently, the officials in the Mahātthai ministry who dealt with these documents likewise became more important. All of the seven ministers were practical officers within the Mahātthai. Additionally, like Caophrayā Nikhōnbōdin (Tō), six of the seven ministers did not belong to prominent families. Instead, it appears that Rama III promoted efficient and practical individuals to ministerial offices to secure their support. The son of Dit, Caophrayā Sī Suriyawong (Chuang) was the minister of the Kalāhōm in the reign of Rama IV (1851‒1868). However, he also influenced documental affairs within the Mahātthai ministry as well as diplomacy involving the Western states, especially later in Rama IVʼs reign. Chuang not only belonged to the most powerful family, but was also a practical officer. Rama IV had tried actively to influence politics; yet, he also empowered Chuang to negotiate with France regarding Cambodian affairs. Chuangʼs appointment as regent fo the young Rama V in 1869 may have been due to his high position in the later years of the reign of Rama IV.