Departmental Bulletin Paper 特別支援教育に携わる小中学校教員のストレスとサポート体制の研究展望

大山, 卓  ,  金井, 篤子  ,  OHYAMA, Takashi  ,  KANAI, Atsuko

Description
Although elementary and junior high schools’ capacity to provide Special Needs Education has steadily improved since such education begun, there is concern that teachers are becoming ever busier with the introduction of the new education system. Future Special Needs Education will be geared toward strengthening inclusive education, and will aim to create a cohesive society in which people do not have to be concerned about whether or not they have a disability. In this regard, more attention must be paid than ever to the places of education which are elementary and junior high schools, and the difficulty of teaching children with disabilities and the increasing workload of teachers are matters of concern. In addition, more Special Needs Education Schools which will function as regional centers for Special Needs Education will be required, in order to enhance consultation opportunities and support for elementary and junior high school teachers. Based on previous research related to stress and incidents of burnout among elementary and junior high school teachers, the present research sheds light on the awareness of elementary and junior high school teachers after the introduction of Special Needs Education, and on factors that determine the characteristic stressors and burnouts of elementary and junior high school teachers involved in Special Needs Education. Moreover, on the basis of previous research into the consultation opportunities and support which Special Needs Education Schools provide for elementary and junior high school teachers as part of their function as centers for Special Needs Education, the present research clarifies the issues identified to date and aims to indicate perspectives for future research. According to previous research, “duties,” “the workplace environment,” “private factors,” and “education systems” are considered to be four major stressors which affect teachers. In particular, it has been implied that teachers’ unique “duties” and new “education systems”, for example the introduction of Special Needs Education, are characteristic stressors for teachers. Furthermore, “decreased selfefficacy arising from having to deal with an educational domain that is not their area of expertise,” “responding to pupils, students and guardians,” and “problems with the support system both in and outside school” have been determined to be characteristic stressors and issues for elementary and junior high school teachers involved in Special Needs Education. “Consultation” and “training” are important among the support which Special Needs Education Schools provide to elementary and junior high schools as part of their function as centers for Special Needs Education, and issues have been pointed out with regard to how to proceed with consultations which not only involve the teachers concerned but also encompass the entire school. With regard to training for teachers involved in Special Needs Education, it has been implied that training should be developed which, together with increasing the self-efficacy of said teachers through problem solving type training that they can participate in proactively, will strengthen their collegiality by giving them opportunities to do group work together and will link to reduced levels of stress. However, the amount of previous research which verifies the effects of training programs for teachers is limited. A future issue will be to develop and implement effective psychological education programs with regard to Special Needs Education and verify their effects, with said programs to be provided to elementary and junior high school teachers by Special Needs Education Schools as part of their function as centers for Special Needs Education. Given the increasing severeness and diversity of disabilities among disabled children who go to elementary and junior high schools, the importance of Special Needs Education Schools for children who are difficult to instruct has also been clarified, as has been the importance of support in cooperation with psychologists.
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