||大学入試でテストされる能力のタイポロジー : アメリカ，日本，イラン，フランスの大学入試問題比較から
Typology of Abilities Tested in University Entrance Examinations: Comparisons of the United States, Japan, Iran, and France
渡邉, 雅子WATANABE, Masako Ema
17 , 2015-09-30 , 名古屋大学大学院教育発達科学研究科
This study proposes the creation of a typology of abilities tested in university entrance examinations regarding types of knowledge (experiential versus academic) and objective (instrumental versus value) as indices. Based on the cross tabulation of these indices, four types of abilities are extracted: generic, communal, nomothetic, and political. The proposed typology is examined by past questions on literature exams in the four countries. The analysis reveals 1) the SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test) in the United States tests effective reasoning skills in order to address fairly the versatility and mass of applications, 2) the National Center Test in Japan examines the ability to infer human emotions deemed important for smooth social interaction, 3) the Iranian Konkur tests the understanding of universal laws for guiding principles in life, and 4) the French Baccalauréat tests the mastery of dialectic procedure for innovative thinking. Thus entrance examinations reveal the types of abilities and attitude each society values. The typology aids in understanding their qualitative differences, which past studies were unable to elucidate. Moreover, the proposed typology offers an analytical framework for systematic comparisons of varying types of abilities. This framework enables educators to evaluate new types of abilities proposed by OECD and contributes to the evaluation of reforms of university entrance examination.