||Neuroinflammation in motor neuron disease
Komine, OkiruYamanaka, Koji
Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
549 , 2015-11 , Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, School of Medicine
Increasing evidence suggests that the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not restricted to the neurons but attributed to the abnormal interactions of neurons and surrounding glial and lymphoid cells. These findings led to the concept of non-cell autonomous neurodegeneration. Neuroinflammation, which is mediated by activated glial cells and infiltrated lymphocytes and accompanied by the subsequent production of proinflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic or neuroprotective molecules, is characteristic to the pathology in ALS and is a key component for non-cell autonomous neurodegeneration. This review covers the involvement of microglia and astrocytes in the ALS mouse models and human ALS, and it also covers the deregulated pathways in motor neurons, which are involved in initiating the disease. Based on the cell-type specific pathomechanisms of motor neuron disease, targeting of neuroinflammation could lead to future therapeutic strategies for ALS and could be potentially applied to other neurodegenerative diseases.