Being and Nothingness, Man and Reason
嶋田, 義仁SHIMADA, Yoshihito
184 , 2015-03-31 , 名古屋大学文学部
Sein und Zeit is a phenomenological ontology thinking about existential mind experiences, different from the transcendental philosophy guided with a purely reflexive thinking. Its far ancestor is Hegelian Phenomenology of Spirit. Hegel tried to restore the totality of human mind sharpened into reason by Kant. Absolute spirit is the highest for him and philosophy is almost over religion, while in Kant's philosophy reason stayed on the domain of human capacity. In this sense, Hegel was atheist. European Middle Age thinking was dominated by Augustin's theology considering this secular world is nothing, because God is the being and the best like Sun. European humanist philosophers should fight against this theology to restore human being. This evolution was realized by Descartes: he declared 'I think, therefore I am'. Man got being. How can we live in this world without God? This became a common subject for men of the modern world. Recognizing the most important value in Man (Homme), J. J. Rousseau considered the realization of Man in the history is the most important humanist object to realize. The notion of man is however too abstract and too homogenous, being too universal, for human being in the reality driven by various emotions, various reasons is heterogeneous and specific one.