||「呼びかける」という行為についての小考 : 日本語とロシア語の例から
Analysis of personal address as a speech act
96 , 2017-09-25 , 九州大学大学院地球社会統合科学府
This paper focuses on personal address as a speech act, by using Japanese and Russian vocatives as an illustration. First of all, addressing someone, in particular an unknown person, is a speech act of an interactive negotiation between speaker and hearer; the speaker needs to choose an appropriate word and use it in an appropriate situation. This means that addressing is the speaker’s subjective action. At the same time, the hearer always judges the appropriateness of the word chosen by the speaker. Secondly, every vocative has two coexisting functions: identification and evaluation. A speaker in an instant chooses one form for the vocative, assessing the balance between the two functions. Japanese second-person pronouns have relatively strong evaluative properties, that is why they are mostly avoided. On the other hand, it is easier to choose second-person references which invoke temporary characteristics of the hearer or are generally socially approved, because they include less personal evaluation toward the hearer. Finally, we discussed this preference regarding address, drawing from the analysis of Suzuki (1973), who says Japanese address forms always include the element of confirmation about fixed personal and social roles. Speaker’s feelings or attitudes, very ephemeral and fluid, are difficult to express by Japanese address forms. In comparison to Japanese, Russian vocatives more frequently convey speaker’s feeling, for example in a stand-alone vocative sentence. They can act as a substitute of another speech act (e.g. censure, scolding), showing explicitly the feeling or attitude toward the hearer, in contrast to Japanese address forms.