Current Discourse Space and the Two Interpretations of Negatives
237 , 2016 , 九州大学大学院人文科学研究院言語学研究室
In discourse, the speaker and hearer engage in assessing each other’s knowledge and intentions, which is the key factor of the linguistic meaning of an expression. In other words, interpretation of an expression is impossible without the common ground provided by the overall context, which is shared by the interlocutors (Langacker 2008, p465). Langacker calls this common basis for interpretation the current discourse space (CDS). Based on this concept of CDS, this paper examines the two different readings of the complement clauses you don’t know＋P. With the verb know, which is one of the factive predicates, truth of complements is generally presupposed, and even when the main clauses are negated the complements are not (Kiparsky and Kiparsky 1970). When the sentence subject is you, however, there are cases where the propositions do not stay as valid if the main clauses are negated. Thus, we propose two types of you don’t know＋P: type A, in which the factivity is kept intact even when the main clause is negated; type B, in which the feature of factivity is lost when the main clause is negated (Nakashima 2015). Type A is exemplified in (1); type B in (2) as below. (1) “… When you’re in high school, well, the school, your friends – they’re just your whole world.” “And you think they are the whole world,” said Louise. “You don’t know that there’s life after high school.” (COCA) (2) A: He’s real upset. He ain’t never gonna forgive me. B: You don’t know that he wouldn’t. A: I know. B: You don’t know until you ask him. (COCA) The objective of this paper is to elucidate how such a difference in factivity, or, more precisely, the two different readings of you don’t know ＋P, are brought about, based on Langacker’s model of CDS.