18 , 2016-03 , Kyushu University, School of Letters, Graduate School of Humanities, Faculty of Humanities
Since the second century CE (Han period), Heavenly Masters Daoism has administered the world of the divine through communal festivals. The priests also used Daoist exorcism to serve the personal needs of individuals. Such exorcist rituals relied on martial spirit forces to address the demoniac causes for disasters that needed to be eliminated. To perform such exorcism, the priest transformed into a spirit marshal and created indispensable amulets. The paper discusses the amulet of a protective Thunder divinity. Exorcism was based on oral transmission until the Song period (twelfth century) when the court Daoist Wang Wenqing and others coined the term Thunder rituals and applied Internal Alchemy to document such rituals. The paper uses canonical sources to describe the features of Thunder rituals and Thunder divinities. Exorcism remains a feature of Heavenly Masters Daoism.