Design history is generally considered to have begun during the era of the Industrial Revolution, as the modem meaning of the term "designer" originated amidst the division of labor in the industrialized factories of the 18th and 19th centuries. Since industrialization, designers have tried to integrate machine technology with the beauty of art in order to restore the wholeness of human beings. However, if design indeed integrates instrumental technology with beauty, we might find that its antecedents lie before industrialization. The shamans of ancient times, maestros of the Renaissance, and craftsmen of the pre-modern era engaged in both liberal arts (artes liberales) and mechanical arts (artes mechanicae). They dealt with symbols. Thus, this thesis argues that the design aesthetics of pre-industrial craftsmanship are connected with the symbol technology of Renaissance, Mannerist, and Baroque art, as well as the "applied art" of the 18th and 19th centuries.