||人物と交流IV(中津市歴史民俗資料館 分館 医家史料館資料叢書 14)
Personalities and Encounters IV (Nakatsu Municipal Museum for History and Folklore, Medical Archive Series No 14)
ジンブツ ト コウリュウ
大島, 明秀 ,
ミヒェル, ヴォルフガング吉田, 洋一
2015-03-27 , 中津市教育委員会
On the manuscript “Study of Medical Books” and the physician family Yakata Akihide ŌSHIMA This study deals with a manuscript entitled Iseki-kō that was kept by the Yakata family, who over many generations took care of the small population in the remote hamlet of Yakata and its surroundings (nowadays part of the administrative area of Nakatsu City, Ōita prefecture). Among the various prints and manuscripts that were found in the former residence of this family, there was an Edo-period manuscript of 38 pages bound in the traditional four-hole binding (yotsume toji). It contains the titles, authors, number of volumes and other data of more than one thousand Chinese books on medicine in chronological order until the Ming Dynasty. A comparative analysis of the graphical properties showed that the manuscript was written by Yakata Moromichi (1746–1826), the first physician of the Yakata family. It is hardly conceivable that these books were piled up in his house. Further investigations brought to light a similar manuscript kept by Kyōto University as part of the Fujikawa Collection. It was written by Nozu Genkai, a physician yet to be identified. As this second manuscript with 1212 titles shows various more elaborate traits, Yakata’s text seems to be a later copy. No other copy has been found, and nothing is known about Nozu and the circumstances under which Yakata made his copy. Yakata lived in an isolated and rather backward hamlet. But like many ambitious physicians of the Edo period, he ventured out and managed to build up an impressive network. He was on good terms with Tanaka Denshin (1748–1824), a physician in the castle town of Nakatsu and with Kuranari Ryūsho (1748–1812), a Neo-Confucian scholar employed by the lord of Nakatsu. Yakata also went to Nagasaki and studied Western medicine in the school of the interpreter and scholar Yoshio Kōgyū (1724–1800), whose knowledge and collection attracted thousands of visitors from all over the country. Obviously, Yakata Moromichi conducted intensive studies about both Western and Chinese medicine. On the manuscript “Miscellaneous Records” (Sho-zatsuyō-ki) kept by the physician family Murakami Yōichi YOSHIDA Nakatsu is located in the eastern part of Kyushu. Early modern history of this area starts in 1587 with the arrival of Lord Kuroda Yoshitaka (1546–1604). During the 17th century, the local rulers changed several times because of forced relocation by the Edo Government. In 1600, the domain was given to the Hosogawa clan, which was substituted by the Ogasawara clan in 1632. From 1717 up to 1871, the Okudairas ruled Nakatsu. The history of the Murakami family goes back to Murakami Sōhaku, who started his medical practice during the Ogasawara era in 1640. From the third generation on, the successive heads of the family served as domain physicians to the Okudaira clan.This study deals with a manuscript entitled Sho-zatsuyō-ki. On its second page, it shows the date “first year Kanei”, which corresponds to 1848 in the Western calendar. Various names of places and some chronological remarks, as well as expressions such as “departure from Sumpu” “from Fuchū to Kanaya eight miles” and “pilgrimage to Mount Asama”, show that these are notes taken during journeys from Edo to Nakatsu. In the mid-18th century, Murakami Harumi (1806–1893) served as physician to Lord Okudaira Masatomo. The manuscript starts on July 1 with Sumpu (present-day Shizuoka), followed by notes about Kanaya, Hamamatsu, Futagawa, Okazaki, Kuwana, Yokkaichi, Kameyama, Kusatsu, Ōtsu, Kyōto (July 9) and finally Ōsaka, where the domain of Nakatsu maintained a trading station with storage houses. Another part of the manuscript begins with the arrival in Ōsaka on July 14. This time, the journey continues by ship to Shikoku including a pilgrimage to the Konpira Shrine (July 17), a famous site of prayers for safe seafaring located halfway to the top of Mount Zōzu. Two days later, the party passed the island of Himejima in the Western part of the Seto Inland Sea. Additionally, there are records from when Lord Okudaira had finished his obligatory attendance in Edo and was about to return to his domain. Servants from his Edo residence are accompanying the travelers to the village of Shinagawa (June 23). Later entries mention Hodogaya, Totsuka and Fujisawa, all of them well-known stations of the famous “East Sea Road” (Tōkaidō). None of the journeys is completely recorded, but all descriptions are very detailed, giving the names of temples and shrines, lodges, meals and prices, and thus provide valuable information on the state of traveling in late-Edo Japan. On the elementary schools of Nakatsu in the early Meiji period Mieko TŌSHO In 2012, the Ōe Medical Archive received a generous donation by a descendant of Ōe Okujirō, the third son of the physician Ōe Untaku (1822–1899), who was adopted by the Tsukioka family. Among various old photos, scrolls, books and manuscripts, there was a wooden box containing more than 70 excerpts of records related to the establishment of a school, donations and fund-raising efforts. The records cover the period from 1876 to 1882, when Japan introduced compulsory education and started to establish elementary schools. Many communities had great difficulty in securing sufficient financial resources, but as education was highly valued in Edo- period Japan, we can observe private donations of money, construction land and materials throughout the country. As the detailed records preserved by the Tsukioka family show, the population of Nakatsu was deeply involved in the establishment of communal schools. Combined with the information given by the local “Rural News” (Inaka Shimbun), one of the first newspapers in Meiji-era Japan, these source materials shed new light on the twists and turns in the establishment and running of elementary schools in Nakatsu. They also underline the thirst for education and Japan's enthusiasm to catch up with the modern world.